Unlike the old TPP, which required the US to remove tariffs on 99% of US customs lines, the USJTA agreement is expected to cover a relatively small share of US imports from Japan, both because it covers fewer products and not cars and auto parts, the largest import category in the US. The USJTA`s U.S. customs plan states that auto and auto parts „will be subject to further negotiations to remove tariffs.“ 43 In the context of the TPP, the United States undertook to abolish its tariff of 2.5% over 25 years and its light heavy goods vehicle tariff of 25% over 30 years. European Commission, „EU-Japan trade agreement enters into force“, 31 January 2019, trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1976. For more information, see CRS In Focus IF11099, EU-Japan FTA: Implications for U.S. Trade Policy, by Cathleen D. Cimino-Isaacs. The U.S. The tariff plan is set out in Annex II, „U.S. Tariffs and Tariff Provisions“. Trade data comes from the U.S. Census Bureau via the IHS Markit World Trade Atlas.
U.S. customs lines are eight-digit classifications in the United States Harmonized Nomenclature (HTSUS). The U.S. Customs Plan and the 2019 U.S. Tariffs are available under dataweb.usitc.gov/tariff/annual. The Trump administration`s bilateral negotiations with Japan are an alternative to the U.S.-Japan trade deal negotiated under the TPP. In light of the Trump administration`s decision to strike a limited first-stage deal, the main difference with the TPP (and TPP-11) is that the TPP covered a much wider range of commitments. For example, the USJTA requires countries to reduce or eliminate tariffs on a small portion of each country`s overall tariff headings, while the TPP requires both countries to remove tariffs on all but a limited number of agricultural products.99 In addition, this Phase 1 agreement with Japan covers a non-tariff theme, digital trade, while the TPP covers issues such as rules on technical barriers to trade. sanitary and phytosanitary measures, public enterprises, labour and environmental standards, protection of investments and intellectual property rights and market access for services, among others.
It remains to be seen whether and in what form the government will enter into such commitments in future negotiations with Japan.100 The Plaza Agreement (Japanese: ラザ合意) was a joint agreement reached on September 22 On September 1, 1985, the Plaza Hotel in New York was signed between France, West Germany, Japan, the United States and the United Kingdom. on the depreciation of the US dollar against the Japanese yen and the German mark through interventions in the foreign exchange markets. The US dollar depreciated sharply since the date of the agreement, until it was replaced by the Louvre agreement in 1987.    Its main objective was to increase the competitiveness of US and European exports compared to Japanese exports by imposing monetary controls. The tariff commitments of the United States and Japan are an important element of the bilateral trade agreements of the first phase. The extent to which negotiated tariff reductions can influence bilateral trade patterns depends largely on each country`s existing most-favoured-nation (SNSF) rates – the non-preferential rates currently applied to US and Japanese imports from other WTO members – and existing trade models. It should be noted that some of the trade between the United States and Japan already enters duty-free into each other`s respective markets. .